Report

Masculine Norms and Violence: Making the Connections

Author: Brian Heilman, Gary Barker
Published by: PROMUNDO-US
View report
Promundo report

This report explores 'masculine norms' – messages, stereotypes, and social instructions related to manhood that supersede and interact with being born male or identifying as a man – as crucial factors driving men’s violence. It combines a review of academic and grey literature with program evidence and input from expert reviewers across several fields of violence prevention, making the connections between harmful masculine norms and eight forms of violent behaviour. While this report focuses on how violence is often generated as part of male socialisation, it also seeks to present examples and research on men and boys’ resistance to harmful masculine norms and violence.